by T. Gorski


1. Develop motivating problems.

2. Failure of normal problem solving.

3. Failure of controlled use strategies.

4. Acceptance of need for abstinence.


1. Recognition of the need for help.

2. Recovery from immediate after-effects.

3. Interrupting pathological preoccupation.

4. Learning non-chemical stress management methods.

5. Developing hope and motivation.

Early Recovery

1. Full conscious recognition of addictive disease.

2. Full acceptance and integration of the addiction.

3. Learning non-chemical coping skills.

4. Short-term social stabilisation.

5. Developing a sobriety-centred value system.

Middle Recovery

1. Resolving the demoralisation crisis.

2. Repairing addiction-caused social damage.

3. Establishing a self-regulated recovery programme.

4. Establishing lifestyle balance.

5. Management of change.

Late Recovery

1. Recognising the effects of childhood problems on sobriety.

2. Learning about family-of-origin issues.

3. Conscious examination of childhood.

4. Application to adult living.

5. Change in lifestyle.


1. Maintain a recovery programme.

2. Effective day-to-day coping.

3. Continued growth and development.

4. Effective coping with life transitions.